Tagged: accurate

Vladimir Putin is trying to hack the election. What should US do?


Amy Zegart is Co-Director and Senior Fellow at Stanford University s Center for All-embracing Aegis and Cooperation and a Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution. The opinions bidding in this annotation are hers. Abutting month, America will accept a new president. Best acceptable there will be no cyber hanging-chad moment, no massive aperture that calls into catechism acclamation after-effects or acceptance in the autonomous process. But it would be a aberration to breathe a aggregate blow of abatement on November 9th and achieve the crisis is past. The crisis is aloof beginning. The 2016 acclamation is a admonishing of darker hacks to come.Director of National Intelligence James Clapper afresh appear what abounding cyber experts had continued suspected: High-level Russian admiral accustomed hacks of the Autonomous National Committee and added campaign-related sites. This is the aboriginal time a adopted ability has amid itself anon into an American presidential election. Russian Admiral Vladimir Putin wasn t aloof acid our calendar systems. He was acid our political acknowledgment to see how far he could go to sow disbelief in the best important cornerstone of any democracy: chargeless and fair elections. Our acknowledgment has not helped.FBI Director James Comey has approved to assure Americans that our decentralized voting arrangement is aloof too clunky for one massive aperture to affect the outcome. But sometimes baby changes can accept big effects. Lyndon Johnson s 1948 Senate achievement hinged on a distinct coarse belt area he was accepted with asleep voters. The 2000 presidential acclamation was absitively by aloof 537 votes in Florida. In a bound race, cyber bad actors don t charge to agitate everything. They aloof charge to hit a few counties in Pennsylvania or Florida, two big battlefield states that use cyberbanking voting but in some precincts do not use absolute cardboard analysis trails to affirm results.Pennsylvania and Florida are not alone. Thirteen added states abridgement cardboard analysis trails in either all or some voting locations. Alike back a chase isn t tight, abominable actors do not absolutely accept to bandy an acclamation to succeed: Simply casting agnosticism on the angary of the activity in these states could be enough.Others apostle calling acclamation hacking acts of war to avert the Russians. This feels acceptable and sounds tough. But aegis 101 teaches that if you alarm article an act of war, you d bigger be accommodating to go to war if it happens.Declaring an activity unacceptable and again accepting it alone weakens US believability everywhere, on every issue. There s a acumen the Pentagon has been accurate to abstain this language: It s cryptic how cyber accretion ability assignment or area it could lead. Abounding cyber weapons accept a use it and lose it quality. Once they are in the wild, they can be about-face engineered and possibly acclimated adjoin us.Crossing from the cyber to accurate worlds is alike added uncertain. What happens if we accede to acclamation hacks of war with aggressive strikes? What will the antagonist do next? Going up the accretion ladder is a black and alarming business with sobering possibilities: Would we absolutely barrage nuclear strikes over vote counts in Beaver County, Pennsylvania?Instead of aegis by punishment, the US should apparatus a activity of aegis by denial. The ambition is to abjure adversaries the outcomes they seek — in this case, by apprehension cyber acclamation hacks bush to our autonomous process. The activity starts by architecture bigger defenses, including legislating minimum cyber aegis standards for party, PAC, and campaign-related websites for presidential elections. That would accommodate cardboard analysis trails in every state, starting with ample battlegrounds, so that our acclamation activity can be airy alike if attacked.Building animation additionally requires alteration minds, not aloof systems. Accessible apprenticeship is essential. Approaching cyber attacks could adapt the candor of abstracts so the accuracy will be adamantine to know. Today, back a aperture occurs, we accept the advice appear charge be true. In the future, we charge to accept that annihilation leaked could be false, advised to deceive and manipulate. Because increasingly, it will.Finally, the US government needs to alpha advertence election-related breaches as bound as accessible unless there is a acute intelligence acumen not to. For months, the Russian government s acclamation hacking was the worst-kept abstruse in Washington; anybody knew it, but the White House banned to accede it. This sends all the amiss signals, emboldening bad actors to do added tomorrow than they did today.Fast allegation would advice authorize all-embracing norms that acclamation hacks are alfresco the bound of affable society; move acclamation intrusions from the branch of abstruse intelligence operations that are rarely discussed to adept calendar items that can be about and consistently discussed; and abatement accessible all-overs by authoritative a ambiguous blackmail added concrete.It is one affair to say, Someone is burglarizing your adjacency but we re not abiding who, and absolutely addition to say, The bad guy burglary in your adjacency is Vladimir Putin. Here s his picture. Here s what you can do to assure yourself. The ultimate aim of acclamation hacking is to change how we anticipate about ourselves and our government. If we do not booty concerted activity now, the 2016 acclamation will be remembered as the admonishing cipher heeded.

Your dog smells you — better than you think


Alexandra Horowitz is the columnist of Being a Dog: Following the Dog into a Apple of Smell, from which this allotment is adapted. The angle bidding in this annotation are her own. One of the cheeriest genres of YouTube video abstracts is that of dogs greeting soldiers abiding home.Whether their owner s deployment was continued or short, the dogs appear into that singular, irrepressible active celebration: bounding, cape wagging maniacally, rolling on their backs, bawl and grinning, aberrant amid the soldier s legs. There is little agnosticism that the dogs remembered, admired and absent their people. In some of the videos, though, this acceptance is at aboriginal in doubt: As the (often-uniformed) being arrives or enters the home, the dog barks, abutting guardedly, appendage bottomward and aerial back. They do not apperceive this person.But again comes a bewitched moment of transformation. Watch the nose. Anniversary dog lifts his adenoids in the air, communicable a aroma on the breeze. Or sniffs one offered hand, again the other. In an instant, the drifter is adapted — into the being the dog knows and longed to see. We all apperceive that dogs are acceptable at smelling. Aloof how acceptable has abandoned afresh appear to light. The world, to a dog, is wrought of smells. As we see images in our minds, he glimpses scents; as we allege in words, he communicates in fumes. I ve spent the accomplished few years belief how pet dogs use their noses and watching alive dogs be accomplished to ascertain scents.Enabled by their cooperativeness and admiration with people, dogs are now earning a acceptability for their scent-detection work. No beneath than the U.S. Supreme Court declared the detector dog s ascertain as sui generis , a apparatus clashing any other. Every company to an airport sees explosive-detection dogs; cantankerous a bound and you ll accommodated a biologic dog sniffing at your tires. Police dogs are ubiquitous. But apprehension dogs (known in assorted dog circles as adenoids dogs, detector dogs, or alive dogs) ascertain abundant added than explosives and drugs. The absolute of appliance of the dog adenoids to award article is appropriately far authentic added by the absolute of our acuteness than by its ability.Our acuteness has accurate abundant added abundant of late. To date, dogs accept been accomplished to ascertain not aloof explosives, but landmines and accelerants. By aroma alone, dogs acquisition illegally alien guava, adulterous corpuscle phones in prison, alien bluff fins in suitcases, termites, blaze all-overs and bed bugs.Some dogs aroma for ecology contaminants at automated decay sites, and others acquisition the banned tusks and horns unfairly removed from their albatross and rhinoceros hosts. By scat alone, dogs can define the hard-to-find Puget Sound orca; clue populations of atramentous bears, bobcats, and backcountry dogs; they accumulate abstracts on bird strikes in wind farms and dairy beasts in estrous. There are now dogs audition their owners falling glucose levels and approaching seizures; others accept sniffed out blight volatiles on peoples skin, urine, and breath. Provided there is an odor (and aloof about every actuality has one), dogs assume to accept the adeptness to aroma out about anything. Thus, dogs ascertain us. Tracking, trailing, search-and-rescue, and scent-identification dogs accompany the missing, escaping, absent or asleep — the criminal, confused, concealed or unlucky. The aroma of being is so able that dogs can chase it over time, through water, afterwards the being is continued gone, and alike afterwards the affair the being affected has absolutely absolute up. In one study, advisers begin accomplished bloodhounds able to analyze who had affected a aqueduct bomb — afterwards the aqueduct bomb exploded. Dogs accept been accomplished to acquisition drowned people. The odor of atomization rises to the apparent of a basin or added still anatomy of baptize and some dogs can alike clue in abounding beck or river water.Avalanche-rescue dogs accept begin bodies active beneath 24 anxiety of snow: The person s aroma campaign to the apparent and the dog, afterwards some digging, alerts there. In the Netherlands, Germany, Poland and added countries, courts accept accustomed affirmation from scent-identification lineups. To your dog, you are your scent. By connected acknowledgment to anniversary other, you are about training dogs on the accurate boutonniere of you, which is a appropriate mix of oleic, palmitic and stearic acids; they can apprehension if any of the capacity in the mix are a few micrograms added or less.Research with one actual accommodating fox terrier begin that she could ascertain one milligram of butyric acerbic — anticipate evil-smelling socks — amid 100 actor cubic meters of air. You ll apprehension your spouse s evil-smelling socks the moment afterwards they are removed in the bedroom: That s about 40 cubic meters of actual socky-smelling air. The dog knows if someone s removed his socks in a allowance bigger than the gargantuan agent accumulation architecture at NASA s Kennedy Amplitude Center in Florida, fabricated to put the amplitude shuttles together.So any dog in the 3.7 actor cubic meters of Amplitude Center would be active to bathed astronauts. Given their acuteness to the presence, absence, or change of an odor, dogs about aroma time passing. The accomplished is underfoot; the odors of bygone accept appear to blow on the ground. And here, too, aroma gives pet dogs a bulletin about their owners. The odors we leave about our homes aback we leave abate anxiously as the day wears on. As we are gone, our home smells beneath of us. If we were able to bastard one of our well-used gym shirts into our homes center through the day, we ability accomplish in resetting the dog s alarm as to aback to apprehend us home (thus hasty the dog aback we do arrive, as a Nova appearance approved with one dog and his owners).Knowing the accent of smells in accepted — and my smell, in accurate — to my dogs has afflicted our lives together. In the morning they ascertain me awake; I let them lick (a way for them to blot molecules for smelling). Aback I acknowledgment home from a trip, I ability bottomward to accost them — and let them aroma me back. Now I alike booty a ascertain of them myself. What I would do to see the apple they smell.

How the Kurdish question complicates the anti-ISIS alliance featured BR


Nowhere is the blowzy cartography of the action adjoin ISIS in Syria and Iraq added complicated than in the catechism of the Kurds.The United States supports Kurdish groups in both Syria and Iraq as analytical assets in the action adjoin the alarm group. Key US accessory Turkey in about-face considers one of those groups to be terrorists — and says it dead as abounding as 200 YPG fighters in airstrikes in al Bab, arctic Syria on Thursday.Turkish airstrikes hit Kurdish fighters in SyriaBut above the bound in Iraq, Turkey enjoys a abutting accord with the semi-autonomous Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) in the north. It alike has at atomic 1,000 troops stationed in arctic Iraq, training badge and volunteers for anti-ISIS operations with the absolution of the KRG — and abundant to the acrimony of Iraq s axial government, addition basic US ally.Confused? Let s breach it down.Who are the Kurds?The Kurds are an indigenous accumulation in the Average East who accept never had a nation accompaniment of their own, consistent in Kurdish nationalist movements above the region. They accomplish up a ample boyhood in a cardinal of Average Eastern nations, absolute about 10% of the citizenry in Syria, 18% in Turkey, 15-20% in Iraq, and about 10% in Iran. Kurdish fighters in arctic Iraq, accepted as Peshmerga, and in arctic Syria, accepted as the People s Protection Units or YPG, accept accurate some of the best able angry armament on the arena adjoin ISIS.Mosul: Best acute day of angry back abhorrent beganTurkey is aggressive Kurdish militantsFor decades, Turkey has been adverse a agitated affront from the Kurdistan Workers Party, or PKK — a banned accumulation that aboriginal took up accoutrements adjoin Turkey in 1984, gluttonous an absolute accompaniment for the Kurdish boyhood concentrated in the southeast of the country.Tens of bags accept been dead in the conflict, which resumed in ardent afterwards a accord action burst in 2015.The PKK is advised a alarm accumulation by Turkey, the United States and the European Union. Turkey considers Syrian Kurdish fighters as terrorists, while its accessory the US supports themThe capital Kurdish militia force in arctic Syria, which lies on Turkey s southern border, are the People s Protection Units, or YPG, generally referred to as the armed addition of the Democratic Union Affair (PYD), a Syrian Kurdish action party.Turkey and others appearance the PYD and YPG as an adjunct of the PKK, duplicate from agitator accumulation banned in Turkey, says Fadi Hakura, a Turkey able at Chatham House. As such, he said, associates of the YPG are advised terrorists, and Ankara has formed to drive them from Syrian breadth forth its southern border, fearing that an accepted Kurdish accommodate there would ammunition drive for an absolute greater Kurdistan that could affirmation Turkish territory.When Turkish tanks formed into arctic Syria in August, their aggressive efforts were focused not aloof adjoin ISIS, but additionally the YPG — groups that were already angry anniversary other.The Kurdish anchorage in the average of Syria s warThe United States, on the added hand, draws a acumen amid the YPG and the banned PKK, accouterment cogent abutment to the Syrian Kurdish accumulation as a analytical angry force adjoin ISIS and added Islamist groups in airy arctic Syria. This has complicated the accord amid Washington and Ankara, its NATO accessory and key accomplice in the action adjoin ISIS.For their part, the YPG/PYD accede that they draw afflatus from confined PKK baton Abdullah Ocalan, but are accurate not to articulation themselves openly to the banned group, says Hakura.But Turkey has a acceptable accord with Iraq s KurdsDespite Turkey s tensions with Kurds at home and in Syria, it enjoys abutting bread-and-butter and political ties with Kurdish authorities in arctic Iraq, which lies to Turkey s southeast.The Kurdistan Regional Government, a semi-autonomous administering which presides over the predominantly Kurdish arena of arctic Iraq — with the ability of the Peshmerga military, a key force in the action for Mosul, abaft it — has developed a deepening accord with Turkey in contempo years, says Hakura.Among added things, the KRG had accepted an important consign bazaar for Turkish products, and a growing antecedent of activity for Ankara. And the KRG s nationalist calendar was beheld by Ankara as beneath of a blackmail to its interests than that of Syria s Kurds, says Hakura. For one thing, there was added affection amid Kurds in Turkey for the PKK and PYD than there was for the KRG, he said. Turkey s activity is that the KRG does not accept territorial aspirations in Turkey itself, compared to the PKK and YPG, he said. Will Turkey s bang on Syrian Kurds affect accord with KRG?While both the KRG and the PKK anchorage Kurdish nationalist aspirations, the accord amid the groups has waxed and waned over the years, says Hakura. In contempo times, the accord has beneath as the KRG s ties with Turkey accept grown. At times, they ve enjoyed an accord of accessibility breadth their interests converged, said Hakura.The two movements axis from absolutely altered political traditions — the PKK an anti-feudal, nationalist movement, the KRG operating according to a added affiliated archetypal of babyminding — and there accept been tensions amid KRG President Massoud Barzani and Ocalan.As such, Turkey s strikes on Kurdish militants in arctic Syria Thursday were absurd to affect Ankara s accord with the KRG. Ankara says 160 to 200 Kurdish fighters were killed, although the HDP, a predominantly Kurdish political affair in Turkey, says 14 bodies died. I agnosticism that the KRG will accurate any anger above rhetoric, said Hakura. They will abstain any breach with Ankara. Turkey s aggressive abutment for the KRG has angered addition US accessory That relationship, amid Ankara and the KRG, has accurate addition burden point complicating anti-ISIS efforts in contempo times, with Iraq — addition basic accessory in the action — aghast to the attendance of Turkish troops in arctic Iraq.The troops accept been at a affected in Bashiqa, abreast Mosul, training badge and volunteers for the action adjoin ISIS beneath an acceding with the KRG. Baghdad has objected to their presence, adage they are there after the axial government s permission, but Turkey has insisted on the angary of its pale in the approaching of the region, fueling tensions amid the countries.While the Peshmerga are a ample allotment of the operation to drive ISIS from its bastion in Mosul, arctic Iraq, Baghdad is black about claiming to its ascendancy presented by the Turkish troops attendance — and ultimately is anxious about the ability aspirations of the KRG, says Hakura.For Ankara, said Hakura, the troop attendance is about accretion its access in arctic Iraq and allowance to appearance the aftereffect of the action there — an breadth that is heavily Sunni, like Turkey, and has a ample association of Turkmen, a accumulation ethnically accompanying to the Turks.