Tagged: 55th

Somaliland wants to secede — will it be Africa s 55th country?

Peter Robert Woodward is Emeritus Professor of Politics and All-embracing Relations, University of Reading. The angle bidding in this annotation are alone those of the writer. is showcasing the assignment of The Conversation, a accord amid journalists and academics to accommodate account assay and commentary. The agreeable is produced alone by The Conversation. Somaliland President Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo afresh claimed that added than one actor citizens, out of the country s citizenry of 3.4 million, had active a address calling for the all-embracing association to recognise Somaliland.Since 1991, and the collapse of the Siad Barre administration in Somalia, the arena has declared itself independent. But should it? The examples of the alienation of South Sudan and Eritrea accession austere questions and doubts about the outcomes of breakaway states.The accustomed admission to calls for alienation in Africa, as set out by the African Union (AU) and its antecedent the Organisation of African Unity, is that they should be opposed. The best frequently heard altercation adjoin alienation is that acceding the appropriate to one country invites others to booty the aforementioned step.This, the altercation goes, would put at accident the internationally recognised arrangement of post-colonial states in Africa.The affair of alienation aboriginal arose in the 1960s with the beachcomber of decolonisation and questions over the activity of the anew absolute states beyond the continent. Two cases stood out: the Congo, breadth Katanga s self-proclaimed breakaway was defeated by United Nations forces; and Nigeria, breadth the Biafran alienation was concluded by the Nigerian federal forces.Africa s new statesThe affair has appear up afresh in contempo times. In northeast Africa two states accept accomplished separation. In 1993 Eritrea was recognised as a abstracted accompaniment from Ethiopia, and the world s newest state, South Sudan, was recognised in 2011.The affairs in anniversary of these cases was different. But the purpose actuality is not to revisit how and why these took place, but to accede what happened next.In both cases break was advised to accord with actual problems and accommodate an adequate another in the anatomy of a new internationally recognised state. But accept they accomplished these objectives?Both the Ethiopian and Sudanese examples advance that break isn t consistently the aboveboard option. The analysis has led to agitated bound disputes, bread-and-butter complications, and poor relations with the added all-embracing community.There is additionally a case to be fabricated that acceding alienation has alone served to ammunition the claims of added agitator movements. Somaliland s calls to be recognised as independent, rather than actuality included in the efforts to clean Somalia, is an example. When South Sudan became absolute in 2011 a Somaliland appointment accustomed in Juba, the capital, cutting t-shirts adage Somaliland Next .Border disputes, aggressive costsAny break involves the acceptance of an accustomed bound amid the two states involved. In the case of both Eritrea and South Sudan this has accepted contentious.In 1988 there was an affair over Badme, a baby boondocks abreast the Ethiopian bound which Eritrea claimed was theirs. This afire one of the two bigger artery conflicts in Africa aback the additional apple war. The added artery battle was Somalia s advance in 1977 to aback up its affirmation to Ethiopia s Ogaden region, an breadth mainly busy by clans of Somali origin.South Sudan s bound with Sudan additionally accepted contentious, and there were clashes over the acknowledged breadth of Abyei.Neither the Badme or Abyei issues accept been bound to the achievement of the two states involved. Instead they abide to fester.The continuing bound disputes accept resulted in both abandon continuing to advance heavily in their armies and in equipment. Eritrea and Ethiopia both advance ample and cher armament adverse anniversary added beyond their acknowledged border.And while South Sudan and Sudan agreed to an chip collective force on their accepted border, it never came into existence. Mutual suspicion and accusations of incursions by both armies persist.Economic complicationsSeparation consistently involves questions about bread-and-butter relations.Eritrea s ability fabricated Ethiopia a landlocked country. Prior to Eritrea s ability Ethiopia had admission to the sea ports of Massawa and Assab. After separation, Ethiopia accepted admission to continue, but above differences anon emerged to scupper this. This included the about amount of the two countries currencies and tariffs answerable by Eritrea on the movement of goods.Worsening bread-and-butter relations are anticipation to accept played a cogent allotment in the bound war that bankrupt out amid the two countries.Similarly, South Sudan and Sudan had to allotment an aperture to the sea. This became problematic. Sudan began extracting oil in the backward 1990s with the aggregate of the oil basic in the south. It exported oil via pipelines to the Red Sea that ran through the north.The accord agreement, which saw the enactment of the South Sudan government in 2005, complex arrange to allotment the oil revenues. But South Sudan s accommodation to abstracted absolutely in 2011 anon gave acceleration to complaints that Sudan was not honouring the agreement. It alike led at one point to the activity to the arctic actuality closed.Separation legacyWith differences over borders and bread-and-butter relations, and alike apparent war, it is unsurprising that adept relations amid the governments accept accepted difficult. It is accordingly additionally unsurprising that they accept afflicted relations with the added all-embracing community.Separation generally implies that the above accompaniment wasn t viable. All-embracing acceptance of a new accompaniment accordingly assumes that break is bigger for both old and new. This has accepted ambiguous in both cases.Eritrea has acquired a acceptability as a arrogant accompaniment and become article of an all-embracing pariah. South Sudan has imploded into deprivation and boundless conflict, arch some to alarm for it to become a UN mandate, with the attendance of a abiding UN force.These cases accept larboard a bequest which suggests that separation, in Africa at least, is not an accessible option. It could advance to outcomes that do little to break the problems of any of the states involved.Many in Africa will accept these outcomes in apperception as they face Somaliland s connected alarm for all-embracing acceptance as an absolute state. Meanwhile, rebuilding in the blow of Somalia continues with the accurate ambition that Somaliland is allotment of the process.Copyright 2016 The Conversation. Some rights reserved.